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Martinique: vues & types, 1870s-1880s

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Title: Martinique: vues & types
Dates: 1870s-1880s
Number: 95.R.97
Extent: 1.5 Linear Feet (69 photographs in 1 album)
Abstract: The album of 69 photographs taken by an unidentified photographer(s) contains views of Martinique and studio portraits of the island's inhabitants.
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Language: Collection material is in French .
Repository: The Getty Research Institute
Special Collections
1200 Getty Center Drive, Suite 1100
Los Angeles 90049-1688
(310) 440-7390
Author: Beth Ann Guynn

Biographical Note

The album was likely produced by one of the early photographers working in Martinique.

Sources consulted:

Garcia, Claire Oberon. "My first visit to 'Le Pays des Revenants': Color, Caste, and Class in Martinque: Then and…?"

Northrup, David. "Indentured Indians in the French Antilles. Les immigrants indiens engagés aux Antilles françaises," Outre-Mers: Revue d'histoire, Année 2000: 245-271.

Scope and Content of Collection

The album contains 69 albumen photographs of Martinique by an unidentified maker(s) including 24 large format and 25 carte-de-visite size views of Fort-de-France, Balata, St. Pierre, and environs; three large format portraits; and 17 carte-de-visite size studio portraits. One of the large photographs depicts a group of East Indian immigrants, likely recruited to the island as indentured laborers; the other two are studio portraits of a multiracial woman and a Congolese man respectively. Slavery was abolished in Martinique in 1848. Lacking a labor force French coffee and sugar planters first looked to coastal western Africa where they purchased enslaved persons, emancipated them, and then signed them into long-term contracts to work in Martinique. This practice was quickly viewed as enslavement in another guise, and the planters then looked to East India for laborers.

The album is half bound in dark red leather with pebbled boards. The title is debossed on the front cover.

Titles for most of the individual photographs are from the French captions written on the mounts below the images. Consequently, some of the language used to describe Black persons in the titles, such as négresses and mulâtresses (negro women and mulatto women), are now considered to be outdated, racist, or offensive. Fifteen of the carte-de-visite size portraits depict women of color. Grouped on two pages and collectively captioned as representing racial types, these images extend the 1860s and 1870s craze of collecting cartes-de-visite of one's friends, family, heads of state, and other celebrities to the collecting of exoticized and objectified unnamed women. Since the names of the sitters are unknown descriptive titles for their portraits were devised by the archivist.


Arranged in a single series:
Series I. Martinique: vues & types, 1870s-1880s.


Publication Rights

Contact Library Reproductions and Permissions.

Indexing Terms

Subjects - Topics

Blacks -- Martinique -- Portraits
Indentured servants -- Martinique

Subjects - Places

France -- Colonies -- America
Martinique -- Description and travel

Genres and Forms of Material

Albumen prints -- Martinique -- 19th century
Group portraits -- Martinique -- 19th century
Photograph albums -- Martinique -- 19th century
Photographs, Original.
Studio portraits -- Martinique -- 19th century

Related Material

Digitized Material

The collection was digitized by the repository in 2021 and the images are available online:

Administrative Information

Preferred Citation

Martinique: vues & types, 1870s-1880s, The Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles, Accession no. 95.R.97.

Immediate Source of Acquisition

Acquired in 1995.

Processing Information

Beth Ann Guynn wrote the finding aid in 2021.

Container List

Series I. Martinique: vues & types, 1870s-1880s
Martinique: vues & types, [1870s-1880s] (digitized version)

In original order.
box Item
1 Front cover 95.R.97-fc Front cover
1 Free endpapers 95.R.97-fe Front endpapers
1 Free front endpaper verso 95.R.97-fev Verso of free front endpaper
1 1 recto 95.R.97-1r Rue du Gouvernement à Fort-de-France
1 2 recto 95.R.97-2r Rivière Levassor
1 3 recto 95.R.97-3r Chantier des transatlantiques
1 4 recto 95.R.97-4r Rade de St. Pierre
1 5 recto 95.R.97-5r Le Calvaire (Fort-de-France)
1 6 recto 95.R.97-6r Camp de Balata, logement du colonel (environs de Fort-de-France)
1 7 recto 95.R.97-7r Pitons Didier, établissement thermal (environs de Fort-de-France)
1 8 recto 95.R.97-8r Camp de Balata, logement du gouverneur (environs de Fort-de-France)
1 9 recto 95.R.97-9r Pitons Absalon, établissement thermal
Caption continues: (environs de Fort-de-France).
1 10 recto 95.R.97-10r Fort-de-France: Baie des Flamands
1 11 recto 95.R.97-11r Savanne de Fort-de-France: Statue de l'impératrix Joséphine
1 12 recto 95.R.97-12r Rade de St. Pierre
1 13 recto 95.R.97-13r Jardin du gouvernement à Fort-de-France: Arbre du voyageur
1 14 recto 95.R.97-14r Jardin du gouvernement (Fort-de-France)
1 15 recto 95.R.97-15r Pitons Absalon, établissement thermal
Caption continues: (environs de Fort-de-France).
1 16 recto 95.R.97-16r Pitons Absalon, maison de bains
1 17 recto 95.R.97-17r Rivière Madame à Fort-de-France
1 18 recto 95.R.97-18r Rivière Madame
1 19 recto 95.R.97-19r Bassin de radoub (Fort-de-France)
1 20 recto 95.R.97-20r Bassin de radoub - 2e vue
1 21 recto 95.R.97-21r Place Bertin à S. Pierre
1 22 recto 95.R.97-22r Touffe de bambous
1 23 recto 95.R.97-23r Cascade du jardin botanique
1 24 recto 95.R.97-24r Groupe d'Indiens à dépôt des immigrants à Fort-de-France
1 25 recto 95.R.97-25r Mulâtresse
Full-length portrait of a Black woman.
1 26 recto 95.R.97-26r Nègre du Congo
Full-length portrait of a Black man. See accession number 2002.R.1 for another copy of this image where it is attributed to H. Hartmann.
1 27 recto 95.R.97-27r Négresses et mulâtresses
The album page contains seven carte-de-visite size studio portraits of unidentified Black female sitters and includes bust portraits as well as full- and three-quarter-length standing and seated portraits.
1 27 recto-1 95.R.97-27r.1 [Seated Woman with Plaid Headwrap]
1 27 recto-2 95.R.97-27r.2 [Woman Seated by a Window]
1 27 recto-3 95.R.97-27r.3 [Bust Portrait of a Woman Wearing a Dark Dress, Large Beads, and Headgear]
1 27 recto-4 95.R.97-27r.4 [Woman Wearing Plaid Dress]
1 27 recto-5 95.R.97-27r.5 [Profile Bust Portrait of a Woman Wearing Bejeweled Plaid Headwrap]
1 27 recto-6 95.R.97-27r.6 [Standing Woman with White Collar]
1 27 recto-7 95.R.97-27r.7 [Woman Carrying Basket on Her Head]
1 28 recto 95.R.97-28r Types de mulâtresses
The album page contains seven carte-de-visite size studio portraits of unidentified Black female sitters and includes four bust portaits, one standing three-quarter-length portrait, one seated half-length portrait, and a portrait of two seated women.
1 28 recto-1 95.R.97-28r.1 [Bust Portrait of a Woman Wearing a Bejeweled Headwrap and Large Beads]
1 28 recto-2 95.R.97-28r.2 [Bust Portrait of a Woman in a White Top]
1 28 recto-3 95.R.97-28r.3 [Profile Bust Portrait of a Woman in a White Top]
1 28 recto-4 95.R.97-28r.4 [Bust Portrait of a Woman Wearing a Bejeweled Headwrap, Satin Scarf, and Large Beads]
1 28 recto-5 95.R.97-28r.5 [Woman Standing Next to a Basket of Fruit]
1 28 recto-6 95.R.97-28r.6 [Two Seated Women]
1 28 recto-7 95.R.97-28r.7 [Woman with White Scarf Looking to the Right]
1 29 recto 95.R.97-29r [Three Occupational Portraits]
The album page contains three carte-de-visite size occupational portraits of Black sitter (two men and a woman).
1 29 recto-1 95.R.97-29r.1 Fabrit de fruits au cire
1 29 recto-2 95.R.97-29r.2 Porteuse de...
The woman is carrying a bucket covered with a plank on her head.
1 29 recto-3 95.R.97-29r.3 Montreur de serpents
1 30 recto 95.R.97-30r [Views of St. Pierre and Fort-de-France]
Album page with nine carte-de-visite size views.
1 30 recto-1 95.R.97-30r.1 Place Bertin (St. Pierre)
1 30 recto-2 95.R.97-30r.2 Bassin de radoub (Fort-de-France)
1 30 recto-3 95.R.97-30r.3 Vue de Fort-de-France: Baie des Flamands
1 30 recto-4 95.R.97-30r.4 Remorqueur entre Fort-de-France et St. Pierre
1 30 recto-5 95.R.97-30r.5 Environs de St. Pierre
1 30 recto-6 95.R.97-30r.6 Rade de St. Pierre
1 30 recto-7 95.R.97-30r.7 Statue de l'impératrice Joséphine sur La Savanne de Fort-de-France
Caption reads: Statue de l'Impr.ce. Joséphine sur la savanne de Fort-de-France.
1 30 recto-8 95.R.97-30r.8 Eglise de Fort-de-France
1 30 recto-9 95.R.97-29r.9 Plan de Fort-de-France
Photographic reproduction of a map.
1 31 recto 95.R.97-31r [Views of Fort Saint-Louis, Fort-de-France, and St. Pierre]
Album page with eight carte-de-visite size views.
1 31 recto-1 95.R.97-31r.1 Atelier de travail
1 31 recto-2 95.R.97-31r.2 Quartier d'artillerie et Fort St.-Louis (Fort-de-France)
Caption reads: Quartier d'artillerie et Fort St. Louis (Fort-de Fre.)
1 31 recto-3 95.R.97-31r.3 Rue du Gouvernement (Fort-de-France)
1 31 recto-4 95.R.97-31r.4 Rue du Fort-de-France
1 31 recto-5 95.R.97-31r.5 Pont et rivière au jardin botanique (St. Pierre)
1 31 recto-6 95.R.97-31r.6 Case de travailleurs dans les bois
1 31 recto-7 95.R.97-31r.7 Jardin botanique (St. Pierre)
1 31 recto-8 95.R.97-31r.8 Magasin de subsistances et Fort St.-Louis (Fort-de-France)
1 32 recto 95.R.97-32r [Views of Fort-de-France, St. Pierre, and Religious Sites]
Album page with eight carte-de-visite size views.
1 32 recto-1 95.R.97-32r.1 Marché à Fort-de-France
1 32 recto-2 95.R.97-32r.2 Cascade du jardin botanique (St. Pierre)
1 32 recto-3 95.R.97-32r.3 Cascade (2er vue)
1 32 recto-4 95.R.97-32r.4 Cascade du Trou aux Sergents
1 32 recto-5 95.R.97-32r.5 Env. de St. Pierre (Environs de St. Pierre)
View of nuns praying at an altar. Caption in negative below image: N. D. de la Déliverande / priez pour nous.
1 32 recto-6 95.R.97-32r.6 Env. de St. Pierre (Environs de St. Pierre)
Nuns and others praying at an outdoor shrine. Caption in negative below image reads: N. D. de Lourdes priez pour nous!
1 32 recto-7 95.R.97-32r.7 Château d'eau (Fort-de-France)
1 32 recto-8 95.R.97-32r.8 N. D. de la Délivrande
Exterior view of a church. Caption in negative below the image: N. D. de la Délivrande.
1 33 recto 95.R.97-33r Blank page
1 34 recto 95.R.97-34r Blank page
1 35 recto 95.R.97-35r Blank page
1 36 recto 95.R.97-36r Blank page
1 37 recto 95.R.97-37r Blank page
1 38 recto 95.R.97-38r Blank page
1 39 recto 95.R.97-39r Blank page
1 40 recto 95.R.97-40r Blank page
1 41 recto 95.R.97-41r Blank page
1 42 recto 95.R.97-42r Blank page
1 43 recto 95.R.97-43r Blank page
1 44 recto 95.R.97-44r Blank page
1 45 recto 95.R.97-45r Blank page
1 46 recto 95.R.97-46r Blank page
1 47 recto 95.R.97-47r Blank page
1 48 recto 95.R.97-48r Blank page
1 49 recto 95.R.97-49r Blank page
1 Back endpapers 95.R.97-be Back endpapers
1 Back cover 95.R.97-bc Back cover